Shaping up different materials and performing various functions such as sanding, deformation, cutting, facing, knurling, drilling, turning and much more is done with the lathe machines. Special tools are used in order to perform these various operations. Read on to know more about the lathe operations:
What Is Lathe?
Lathe is a machine that helps in shaping several material pieces in the desired shapes. A lathe is a machine that rotates the piece on the axis in order to perform various operations like cutting, facing, knurling, deformation and more. Metal spinning, thermal spraying, woodturning and metalworking are the common operations performed with a lathe machine. One can even shape pottery with this working wonder. Whatever material used in lathe machine whether metal or wood is molded first. The most commonly used lathes are the woodworking lathes.
The wood piece is placed in between the headstock and the tailstock of the lathe. Clamping is also used to work the piece about the axis of rotation with the help of a faceplate, clamps/dogs or collet/chuck. The products produced with the help of the lathe machine are cue sticks, musical instruments, candlestick holders, table legs, baseball bats, gun barrels, camshafts, bowls, crankshafts and much more. There are plenty of lathe that vary in sizes and shapes according to the work to be done.
The general operations done with the lathe are grooving, turning, cutting, sanding and etc. if anyone wants to operate the lathe machine then he must first know about the feeds, cutting speed, depth of the cut and usage of tool should be considered. Each lathe operation has got its own factors that need to be considered before doing the work. The factors should be used properly so that one can avoid from mishandling and mishaps while performing any kind of lathe operation. With every cut desired the speed, depth and feed of the lathe machine is changed for precision.
Types of Lathe Operation
The working of the lathe machine changes with every operation and cut desired. There are a lot of operations used for using the lathe machine. Some of the common lathe operations are:
This is usually the first step of any lathe operation on the lathe machine. The metal is cut from the end to make it fit in the right angle of the axis and remove the marks.
Tapering is to cut the metal to nearly a cone shape with the help of the compound slide. This is something in between the parallel turning and facing off. If one is willing to change the angle then they can adjust the compound slide as they like.
This operation is adopted in order to cut the metal parallel to the axis. Parallel turning is done to decrease the diameter of the metal.
The part is removed so that it faces the ends. For this the parting tool is involved in slowly to make perform the operation. For to make the cut deeper the parting tool is pulled out and transferred to the side for the cut and to prevent the tool from breaking.
Lathe Cutting Tools
There are several lathe cutting tools that help in cutting with the lathe machine. The commonly used tools are mentioned below:
- Carbide tip tools
- Grooving tool
- Cut-Off blade
- Parting blades
- Boring bar
- Side tool
Working Principle: The lathe is a machine tool which holds the workpiece between two rigid and strong supports called centers or in a chuck or face plate which revolves. The cutting tool is rigidly held and supported in a tool post which is fed against the revolving work. The normal cutting operations are performed with the cutting tool fed either parallel or at right angles to the axis of the work.
The cutting tool may also be fed at an angle relative to the axis of work for machining tapers and angles.
Construction: The main parts of the lathe are the bed, headstock, quick changing gear box, carriage and tailstock.
1. Bed: The bed is a heavy, rugged casting in which are mounted the working parts of the lathe. It carries the headstock and tail stock for supporting the workpiece and provides a base for the movement of carriage assembly which carries the tool.
2. Legs: The legs carry the entire load of machine and are firmly secured to floor by foundation bolts.
3. Headstock: The headstock is clamped on the left hand side of the bed and it serves as housing for the driving pulleys, back gears, headstock spindle, live centre and the feed reverse gear. The headstock spindle is a hollow cylindrical shaft that provides a drive from the motor to work holding devices.
4. Gear Box: The quick-change gear-box is placed below the headstock and contains a number of different sized gears.
5. Carriage: The carriage is located between the headstock and tailstock and serves the purpose of supporting, guiding and feeding the tool against the job during operation. The main parts of carriage are:
a). The saddle is an H-shaped casting mounted on the top of lathe ways. It provides support to cross-slide, compound rest and tool post.
b). The cross slide is mounted on the top of saddle, and it provides a mounted or automatic cross movement for the cutting tool.
c). The compound rest is fitted on the top of cross slide and is used to support the tool post and the cutting tool.
d). The tool post is mounted on the compound rest, and it rigidly clamps the cutting tool or tool holder at the proper height relative to the work centre line.
e). The apron is fastened to the saddle and it houses the gears, clutches and levers required to move the carriage or cross slide. The engagement of split nut lever and the automatic feed lever at the same time is prevented she carriage along the lathe bed.
6. Tailstock: The tailstock is a movable casting located opposite the headstock on the ways of the bed. The tailstock can slide along the bed to accommodate different lengths of workpiece between the centers. A tailstock clamp is provided to lock the tailstock at any desired position. The tailstock spindle has an internal taper to hold the dead centre and the tapered shank tools such as reamers and drills.
The engine lathe is an accurate and versatile machine on which many operations can be performed. These operations are:
1. Plain Turning and Step Turning
12. Filling and Polishing
13. Taper Turning
Last Updated: Thursday, November 13, 2014